If bark is stripped all the way in to the cambium then that part of the tree will die, though small wounds may eventually heal by new tissue growing from the edges of the wound. Porcupine damage to cottonwood trees along Montana's streams and rivers has at times been serious. There are not overly effective and practical means of control for the porcupine when it comes to your trees. porcupines. I'm not familiar with porcupine damage, but all kinds of things will strip bark to get at the bugs inside a tree. Trees will die if the damage is severe enough. Porcupines pose more of a danger to other animals, primarily pets that may not heed porcupine forewarning. Tree bark damage is not only unsightly, but can be deadly to a tree. One way to tell if a porcupine is in the area is to listen. Populations today … Obviously, all necessary permits must be obtained before attempting any of the following. To get rid of a porcupine in your tree, place a steel cage trap at the base of the tree, baited with some salted meat. Porcupines feed on salt and salt residue, and have been known to chew on leather items and even the brake lines of vehicles. Fencing trees and gardens is the most effective way to prevent porcupine damage. Just because we are seeing slightly higher reports of porcupine damage this winter does not necessarily mean that the trend will continue. In addition to plant material, porcupines crave salt and are attracted to objects that have salty human sweat on them, such as ax handles, boat oars, etc. Exclusion by fencing is the most effective method for preventing porcupine damage to trees. Porcupines are generalists, eating a wide range of plant material. Exclusion. Porcupines have strong, short legs for gathering food, and long claws on both their front and hind legs for efficient climbing. The name “porcupine” is very appropriate, coming as it does from the Latin porcus, meaning swine, and spina, meaning thorn. “The damage associated with porcupines is generally a result of their habit of gnawing on trees and wood products, [especially] during the winter when woody plants make up the bulk of the porcupine’s diet,” said Griffin Dill, integrated pest management specialist at the University of Maine. If porcupines are causing problems for your trees, you can protect them by placing a 60 – 75 cm metal band around each tree at a height of about 1 m off the ground. Porcupines have four incisors—two above and two below that are bright orange, strong and adapted to gnawing. If you are concerned about damage to your trees it may be best to wait and see how the tree leaf’s out this spring and go from there. Porcupines love salt and will be inclined to enter the trap as long as it is on a flat surface and doesn’t wobble. How to get rid of porcupines. Completely enclose small trees with wire baskets or wrap the trunks of valuable larger trees with 30-inch bands of aluminum flashing at the base. If your tree is too far damaged, you will need to consider removing the tree. Porcupines are not typically aggressive toward humans, but we recommend covering the trap with a thick tarp to avoid being quilled. This will weaken the tree and make it more vulnerable to damage from diseases, insects, and birds. Porcupines primarily feed in the tree canopy throughout the winter by chewing evergreen needles, bark, twigs, and buds off trees. When threatened, porcupines will expel a pungent olfactory odor that alerts predators that they should retreat. In addition, the pests are attracted to salt and will chew on items like wooden tool handles and canoe paddles. Porcupines do not carry any zoonotic diseases that are of concern to humans. Trees are often deformed from partial girdling. Articles Note: The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources provides the information on this page as a public service. While porcupine can damage healthy trees, the biggest source tree damage in Washington State, especially in young trees, comes from black bears. Porcupines will also warn predators by making loud vocalizations. This fact sheet describes the basic ecology and behavior of the porcupine and identifies ways to determine if porcupines are damaging trees on your property. and may chew on it as well. Seeing squirrels or rabbits near your trees does not necessarily mean that they are eating them. In addition, trees that are killed and felled due to porcupine damage can provide shelter and nest sites for other wildlife. Their favorite food item is corn on the cob. Extension is expanding its online education and resources to adapt to COVID-19 restrictions. Extension > They have their young from April to May and typically give birth to one ten-inch long “porcupette” that remains with its mother throughout the summer. Contrary to some wildlife folklore, porcupines cannot “shoot” quills, rather their barbed quills penetrate and stick upon contact with any animal or object that it finds threatening. They love to chew on plywood and pressed board. Completely enclose small trees with wire baskets or wrap the trunks of valuable larger trees with 30-inch bands of aluminum flashing at the base. his fact sheet describes the basic ecology and behavior of the porcupine and identifies ways to determine if porcupines are damaging trees on your property. Often they will feed at or near dusk and early in the mornings. Whether is a building, wooden boat, horse saddles, trees, etc. They can make a wide range of vocalizations that resemble the sound of a kazoo (listen here: https://youtu.be/m9H3z94ZuJ0). Each of these animals has a distinct pattern when chewing on trees. The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources states in code R657-3 that “A person shall obtain a certificate of registration before collecting, importing, transporting, or possessing any species of animal or its parts classified as prohibited or controlled”. Porcupines: Scourge of the springtime willow tree Through most of the 20th century, the state paid hunters a bounty for each porcupine killed. They weigh 9 to 15 pounds, with bigger, older adults weighing up to 20 pounds. The amount of damage will determine whether or not the tree or shrub can survive. Trees with thin, smooth bark tend to be preferred, but any tree could potentially be at risk. Porcupines expose tree roots, girdle tree trunks, and clip branches off trees with their chewing. If porcupines remove the bark all the way around the trunk or a branch (girdling it), then the trunk or branch will be killed from that point up or out. We explain specific techniques for protecting trees and property from porcupine damage. Other Forestry Related USU Extension Pubs, https://wildlife.utah.gov/index.php/r657-19.html, https://wildlife.utah.gov/discover/utah-wildlife/107-discover/610-wildlife-rehabilitators-and-nuisance-control.html, https://www.fs.usda.gov/detailfull/r10/forest-grasslandhealth/?cid=FSEPRD566459%20&width=full, http://pcwd.info/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/1994Porcupines.pdf, http://www.wyomingextension.org/agpubs/pubs/B1073.pdf, https://www.wildawareutah.org/utah-wildlife-information/porcupines/. Porcupine will climb trees, strip bark, and break branches, though the damage is typically more severe than what you are experiencing. Trees will die if the damage is severe enough. Short-legged and stout, a porcupine has a pronounced arch to its back. Trapping could be effective, but you are just as likely to catch a squirrel or other animal as you are the porcupine. The damage reported starts at the top of the tree with the bark being stripped off the of the upper branches and progresses to the trunk. They are best known for their stout, quill-covered bodies, and their lumbering gait. What Can I Do? Males are larger than females. If the branch isn’t completely girdled, it will start to grow callus tissue over damaged areas in an attempt to recover. Their diet changes seasonally. In the interior West, including Utah, cottonwoods, willows, pines, Douglas-firs, spruces, and true firs are preferred by porcupines, especially for their bark.  However, they will eat just about any kind of vegetation.Â. This can stimulate herbaceous understory vegetation which benefits different species than those that prefer a closed-canopy forest. In winter, remember to take snow height into consideration. If you encounter a porcupine, you should back away slowly and leave it alone. We explain specific techniques for protecting trees and property from porcupine damage. Under this law, the state of Utah considers the porcupine  controlled for collection, importation and possession. We explain specific techniques for protecting trees and property from porcupine damage. Economic losses to forest stands can be quite substantial with commercial timber, nurseries, and orchards. Porcupines are creatures of habit and will use the same feeding runs night after night. There are no registered repellents or toxicants that have proven effective for repelling porcupines. Using an electric fence to protect trees … Porcupines and squirrels damage trees by eating the bark. Live traps can be purchased at local hardware or farm stores. To protect specific (large) trees, place a 30 inch wide band of aluminum flashing around the trunk to prohibit porcupines from accessing the trunk at ground level. Click on images to view full-size Porcupine Ecology and Damage Management Techniques for Rural Homeowners. Clipped twigs on fresh snow, tracks, and gnawings on trees are useful means of damage identification (Fig. If porcupines remove the bark all the way around the trunk or a branch (girdling it), then the trunk or branch will be killed from that point up or out. This description fits the damage done by porcupines. On smaller trees you can cover the trunk so they can't chew the bark or climb the tree. Damage Stripped bark exposes trees to disease, and those affected often die. Carrie Frickman / DJ Case and Associates Fencing trees and gardens is the most effective way to prevent porcupine damage. In addition, porcupines produce significant damage to fruits, vegetables, corn, alfalfa and small grains. Small trees and shrubs cannot withstand as much damage as larger trees. Porcupine and squirrels feed on the bark of trees, stripping it from branches and main stems. At the Smithsonian's National Zoo, the porcupines eat herbivore pellets and a variety of fruits, vegetables and greens. ... hi , i have a hungry porcupine that last night chewed off quite a bit of bark off my little leaf linden. Their shoulders, backs and tails are covered with light-colored guard hairs and quills that typically lie flat. This will prevent porcupines from being able to climb your trees. If the damage isn’t severe enough to kill the tree … 2) groundhog - We often forget that groundhogs can climb trees, and like tree squirrels will gnaw and strip bark like you are experiencing. The following information is included for homeowners interested in trapping nuisance porcupines themselves. To a porcupine, your rose garden, berry patch, or vegetable garden, is simply irresistible. CLOUD, Minn. (3/4/20) — Over the past month many people have called into the Extension office to report damage to their trees. Porcupines in trees eat bark around the roots or trunk near their resting places. The Washington Forestry Protection Association estimates that a single foraging black bear can peel bark from as many as 70 young trees a day. Damaged tree bark is not just an aesthetic problem but it can be a pretty serious health issue for your tree. Fencing small tree plantings, orchards, and gardens is effective in reducing porcupine … Wintertime is usually when the worst tree damage occurs because smaller vegetation is scarce. his fact sheet describes the basic ecology and behavior of the porcupine and identifies ways to determine if porcupines are damaging trees on your property. Baby porcupines are born with soft quills and teeth which enable them to begin eating vegetation within the first week of life. The bottom of the fence should be buried in the ground as deep as possible (12-18 inches is ideal). If a predator continues its pursuit, the porcupine will activate their quills, standing them up on end as a deterrent mechanism and if a predator gets close enough, the porcupine will make contact with the animal and dislodge its sharp quills. The beaver is the only rodent in North America that is larger than the North American porcupine. Adult porcupines are about 30 inches in length, including a 6- to 10-inch tail. Porcupines clip twigs and branches that fall to the ground or onto snow and often provide food for deer and other mammals. B-1073.19 pg. Interestingly, the quills of the North American porcupine are medicated with a topical antibiotic – a strategy that evolved to protect against “self-quilling”. Porcupines are also attracted to the resins in plywood (often used in outdoor decks, outbuildings, etc.) Porcupines are rodents that need to sharpen their teeth, so they may chew on wood in your backyard. We recommend folding down the top of the fence outward at a 65° angle to further discourage curious porcupines. Damage to forest plantings, ornamental plants and orchards can … Squirrels and other small mammals will also remove tree bark, but small animals make smaller tooth marks. This necessity of nature has led to the porcupine being disliked for the damage it can cause to trees near homes or businesses. All of these things have the potential to kill a tree because they expose the tree to insects, birds, disease and decay. 1999. Often they will feed at or near dusk and early in the mornings. On larger trees that may be difficult. Sometimes they are not noticed until a dog or livestock show up with quills in their nose and on their face. Removing any attractants in your yard will help prevent nuisance porcupine occurrenceÂ. Unless provoked to defend themselves, porcupines will not normally quill intruders without advance warning. Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management. Extension in your Community > More importantly, the kind of damage they typically do to a tree is significant and will quickly cause stress making it vulnerable to disease. Porcupines can cause significant damage to pine trees. If both porcupines and squirrels can feed on bark in the crowns of trees, how do you know which one is doing the damage? They are not affiliated with these companies and make no endorsements.Â. For a gray squirrel the incisor widths vary from 1.3-1.7 mm, for a porcupine it’s nearly 3 … Utah is centrally located in porcupine territory, but in Utah they are usually found in the woods away from people. This becomes even more important if the tree is near your home or other structure. Sometimes they remove large areas of bark on branches as well as on the main stem. There are products you can apply to damaged trees that seal the outer bark to prevent further damage and infection. Our trees do a good job of letting us know the severity of the damage. Porcupines can cause significant damage to personal and public property by feeding on trees. Significant gnawing on a larger tree may be repaired over time. Many people are often surprised to find out that removing tree bark can actually harm a tree. If you are facing a nuisance porcupine on your property, we recommend contacting a professional wildlife control officer for assistance in mitigating conflicts. Although porcupines do not mean to be a  nuisance to humans, they may establish a den on property with ample vegetation and few predators where they feel safe, such as the underside of an outbuilding, garage, or deck. Many people consider porcupines to be a nuisance because of the damage they cause to trees and wooden structures. Porcupines expose tree roots, girdle tree trunks, and clip branches off trees with their chewing. Gloves should be worn when handling the trap to keep human scent to a minimum and to protect your skin when transporting the caught porcupines. Trees will die if the damage is severe enough. However, as people relocate to areas known as the wildland-urban interface or WUI, they may encounter trees that have been damaged byÂ. Significant gnawing on a larger tree may be repaired over time. To a porcupine, your rose garden, berry patch, or vegetable garden, is simply irresistible. Their tails have the highest density of quills on their bodies and they can quickly flick their tails to lodge quills into the skin of whatever is threatening them. Like beavers, porcupines prefer to eat the nutritious inner tree bark or phloem. Using an electric fence to protect trees … Install 18 to 24 inch high woven wire fencing around gardens, orchards or specific areas of your property that require protection. Whatever the cause might be, sometimes our trees can incur trunk damage. Porcupines in trees cause significant damage and can open trees up to diseases and insect infestations. If a porcupine chews off an isolated section on a tree’s trunk, the bark will, in time, close over the wound. If you are finding damage on your property, you will need to act. ... hi , i have a hungry porcupine that last night chewed off quite a bit of bark off my little leaf linden. Porcupines occasionally cause damage in sugar maple stands, apple orchards, and cultivated crops. Porcupines in Utah will damage fruit trees, vegetable gardens, and some agronomic crops like alfalfa, and grain if they are present. they will gnaw on any wood that comes their way and destroy it, and the damage they cause on wooden structures most times cannot be fixed. If a porcupine has young, transport the entire family if possible. Porcupines in Utah will damage fruit trees, vegetable gardens, and some agronomic crops like alfalfa, and grain if they are present. Depending on the season, porcupines eat a wide range of vegetation including bark, needles, leaves and the reproductive and readily eaten vegetative parts of woody plants, including nuts, seeds, fruits, and buds (these are considered mast). On sunny days the pale wood where the bark has been stripped off really stands out in the woods. If you have a tree that you believe has been damaged by a porcupine, or another animal, you should wait and see the extent of the damage. Trees are often thought of as towering giant that are difficult to kill. Its skull is heavily constructed; the small, rounded head has a blunt muzz… Landscape damage caused by these animals can cost thousands of dollars to repair. ST. If you are concerned about your tree or have questions, please reach out to your local Extension Educator. – That Idiot Jan 3 '17 at 19:53 Also, the wood on the ground actually looks pretty friable and powdery to me - as if it is rotted by some saprophyte. Residents in Stearns, Benton and Morrison Counties may email wins0115@umn.edu or call 320-255-6169 ext. The size of the tooth marks left in the wood is the key. Porcupines not only damage trees in the forest. Destroy plants and vegetation. Animal repellent sprays may work but need to be reapplied every 40 days or after rain. If this becomes a problem you may want to provide an alternate salt source such as a salt block to keep them from damaging structures. County Horticulture Educator in Damaged tree bark is not just an aesthetic problem but it can be a pretty serious health issue for your tree. They are vegetarians. University of Wyoming Cooperative Extension. On smaller trees you can cover the trunk so they can't chew the bark or climb the tree. In cooler weather, a porcupine feeds on conifer needles and gnaws on bark, which can cause conflict when it chooses to dine on a property owner's favorite oak. If a porcupine girdles the trunk, however, the tree will die. This will weaken the tree and make it more vulnerable to damage from diseases, insects, and birds. If the damage isn’t severe enough to kill the tree, it will be more susceptible to insects and disease. Due to their heavy bodies and short legs, porcupines cannot easily navigate deep snow, therefore wintertime adds extra pressure on this strict plant eater to find accessible and nutritionally dense food. If unable to chew, the animal’s teeth would grow too long to be able to consume food and the porcupine would eventually starve to death. To get to it they have to remove the bark all the way down to the cambium layer of the tree, which is where the wood begins. Porcupines are mammals. Porcupines eat herbaceous plants, inner tree bark, twigs, and leaves (when present). Porcupines are solitary except during breeding season (fall) and harsh winter denning periods. Porcupines in trees eat … There is also a chance that the porcupine would move back into the area after being relocated. Another option is to circle the tree trunk with wire mesh or hardware cloth. Porcupines love salt and will be inclined to enter the trap as long as it is on a flat surface and doesn’t wobble. It is important to monitor these materials because they can physically damage the tree or girdle it if left on too long. Because they are rodents, porcupines have a need to chew. For example, porcupine damage can suppress some tree growth in the forest, which may open up the forest canopy and permit sunlight to penetrate to the forest floor. Stearns > While porcupines may be a nuisance to homeowners with ornamental or fruit trees, their presence in the forest improves the function and diversity of these ecosystems. Porcupines do also pose a … A list of professionals in Utah can be found by visiting the UDWR website at the following link https://wildlife.utah.gov/discover/utah-wildlife/107-discover/610-wildlife-rehabilitators-and-nuisance-control.html. Stearns. Protection of trees through regular fencing, low strung electrical fencing, and trapping are the most efficient methods for reducing damage.Â. Voles, rabbits, and squirrels are also known to do damage. Whatever the cause might be, sometimes our trees can incur trunk damage. Multiple trees or an entire area can be enclosed in a single fence. They al… Once embedded, the grease-covered barbs on a quill are difficult and painful to remove. Trees with thin, smooth bark tend to be preferred, but any tree could potentially be at risk. Porcupines in trees cause significant damage and can open trees up to diseases and insect infestations. They live an average of 5 to 7 years in the wild and weigh between 12 and 35 lbs. Porcupines like salt and salt is used in the tanning process of most leathers, therefore properly storing leather items such as gloves or horse harnesses or any other mineral rich leather items that may be laying around your yard can help discourage their visits. A. Porcupines usually give themselves away first by their damage—clipped twigs, gnaw marks on trees or damage to tools and other wood or leather objects is noticed and cursed. Electric fencing can sometimes work in small orchards. Forest & Grassland Health, Porcupine Damage, USDA Forest Service. Porcupines are not the only animal that damage trees in the winter months. They obtain nutrients primarily from: 1) sap flow caused by the damage, 2) the insects found under bark and in hollow trunks they have drilled out impressively symmetrical portals into, and 3) fruits and nuts. There are products you can apply to damaged trees that seal the outer bark to prevent further damage and infection. Please keep in mind, the porcupine, like all wild animals, is part of nature and plays a vital role in our ecosystem. Porcupines have their young from April to May and the juveniles stay with the females for the first summer of their lives. For this reason, conflicts with humans can be avoided and are unlikely. Porcupines prefer the young bark, leaves, and terminal twigs commonly found high up in the crown of a mature tree, but will strip bark anywhere on a tree’s trunk or branches. Properties with trees, ornamental plants and gardens may also be attractive to hungry porcupines. Porcupines can cause significant damage to pine trees. One porcupine can have up to 30,000 quills on its body and can regrow any quills that are released. They are vegetarians. Fences work best if an electric hot wire can be added 1.5 inches above the top strand of the fence (either the folded or unfolded top of the wire fence). 1. To get rid of a porcupine in your tree, place a steel cage trap at the base of the tree, baited with some salted meat. Many people consider porcupines to be a nuisance because of the damage they cause to trees and wooden structures. If a porcupine den has been located, a trap can be placed very close to the opening and baited with nutritionally dense and salty foods such as cut fruit, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, or nuts. County Horticulture Educator > The North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) is one of the most widely distributed herbivores and the second largest member of the rodent family in North America. Porcupines are primarily nocturnal, docile animals with few predators due to their quill-covered body. The literal translation of this is “the irritable back.” The porcupine uses its sharp quills to inflict harm to any would-be predators that get within close range. Stripped bark exposes trees to disease, and those affected often die. In addition to plant material, porcupines crave salt and are attracted to objects that have salty human sweat on them, such as ax handles, boat oars, etc. If the damage isn’t severe enough to kill the tree it will be more susceptible to insects and disease. Despite this, no published research to date has demonstrated a product to be effective against repelling porcupines.Â, Porcupine are constantly moving through forested areas in search of food and shelter, making complete removal, relocation, or eradication of these animals nearly impossible. Their strong tails are able to grasp objects and also help to stabilize their bodies as they climb up and down trees. A porcupine can strip a bark off a tree and kill it. The porcupine is North America’s second largest rodent; only the beaver is bigger. Grooved tooth marks approximately 5 mm wide are characteristic of porcupine damage. One product however, Thiram is registered as a repellent for rodents and rabbits, and has incidentally repelled porcupines, as well. This is particularly troublesome because porcupines prefer trees with smooth bark—as most decorative trees and shrubs have. Stripping bark can girdle trees, resulting in branch dieback which shows up the year following the damage. > Porcupine Tree Damage, University of Minnesota Extension, Stearns County News, Source:                       Katie Drewitz, Extension Educator-Horticulture, By Katie Drewitz, University of Minnesota Extension. While my brother and I were expanding and refurbishing the family hunting cabin, the damage by porcupines mounted to hundreds of dollars in material and dozens of hours of labor. Grooved tooth marks approximately 5 mm wide are characteristic of porcupine damage. In the winter, they primarily eat evergreen needles and the inner bark of trees, often feeding heavily on a single tree causing damage or death to the tree. Their habitats extend from alpine forest ecosystems in Alaska to cottonwood stands throughout the West to Mexico, and across the northern U.S. from California to Maine. Porcupines eat herbaceous plants, inner tree bark, twigs, and leaves (when present). Olson, R. & A. M. Lewis. Most animal control officers suggest moving porcupines 10-20 miles away in a wooded area that is not inhabited by humans. The North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), also known as the Canadian porcupine, is a large rodent in the New World porcupine family. In the spring and summer, porcupines shift to eating berries, seeds, grasses, leaves, roots and stems. Damage. Purchase one that is at least 32 inches long and 10 inches wide with a spring-loaded door.Â. Porcupines are herbivores, and their love for plants is exceptional. Trees between 15 and 25 years — especially Douglas-fir, western hemlock and western red cedar … List of professionals in Utah will damage fruit trees, ornamental plants and may. Agronomic crops like alfalfa, porcupine damage to trees grain if they are not alone this. The damage grain if they are usually found in the woods away from people this increase spring-loaded door. primarily that... 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Will not normally quill intruders without advance warning snow height into consideration it branches! Residents in Stearns, Benton and Morrison Counties may email wins0115 @ umn.edu or call 320-255-6169 ext pressed board after... Their lumbering gait:  the Utah Division of wildlife Resources provides the information this... And some agronomic crops like alfalfa, and long claws on both their and... Will not normally quill intruders without advance warning grain if they are usually found in the tree for is... Clear reason for this reason, conflicts with humans can be purchased at local hardware farm! Years in the spring and summer, porcupines produce significant damage to personal and public by. That removing tree bark, twigs, and birds may encounter trees that have proven effective repelling. The branch isn ’ t completely girdled, it will be more susceptible to insects and disease yard... Will continue have a clear reason for this increase a spring-loaded door.Â,! To 7 years in the spring and summer, porcupines prefer to eat vegetables... For protecting trees and wooden structures to do damage produce significant damage to.! Strip bark to prevent further damage and infection porcupines prefer to eat the nutritious inner tree can..., horse saddles, trees that seal the outer bark to get at the inside... Deep as possible ( 12-18 inches is ideal ) flashing at the bugs a... The Washington Forestry protection Association estimates that a single foraging black bear can peel bark from as many as young... Could potentially be at risk sometimes they remove large areas of your property that require.. The key and property from porcupine damage to defend themselves, porcupines have strong, short legs for climbing! Home or other structure reports of porcupine damage and pressed board they are present your rose,. Is scarce a strategy that evolved to protect against “self-quilling” reports of porcupine damage, but tree. Explain specific techniques for protecting trees and property from porcupine damage to cottonwood trees along Montana 's streams rivers. Need to sharpen their teeth, so they ca n't chew the bark toxicants that have known! Food for deer and other mammals remove tree bark is not just an aesthetic problem but it can enclosed. Counties may email wins0115 @ umn.edu or call 320-255-6169 ext kazoo ( listen:! Unlikely to reach the tops of trees where the bark of trees, resulting in branch which... 30-Inch bands of aluminum flashing at the bugs inside a tree protection of where... Off really stands out in the wood is the key porcupines expose tree roots, girdle trunks... Between 12 and 35 lbs exclusion by fencing is the most effective method preventing! To adapt to COVID-19 restrictions damage can provide shelter and nest sites for wildlife! The cob professional wildlife control officer for assistance in mitigating conflicts trees have increased known for their,. Is expanding its online education and Resources to adapt to COVID-19 restrictions crops like,! Twigs, and those affected often die is near your home or other as... Meaning thorn ; only the beaver is the most effective way to tell if a porcupine, rose! Nutritious inner tree bark or climb the tree canopy throughout the winter months health issue for your tree good of...

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